Turns out it was my camera that was bad. I noticed if you looked at the camera when trying to take a picture that the camera seemed to float around a lot. I took it out and it seems the OIS was bad. The camera could rattle around a lot, not just the little bit of float you normally would get.
Luckily I had a spare at home from a parts phone, and it took about 10-15 minutes to swap out. The hardest part is remembering where the longer screws go when reattaching the back frame. Glad it was such an easy fix, but I still find it curious that it broke at the same time I updated to 15063. I'm sure it is just a coincidence, but that is why I was pointing at software, not hardware. It wasn't until I went back to 10586 and 14393 and still had the same issue that I began to think it was hardware.
It's all good, and I can enjoy my phone again.
If you are having the same issues, it might be your camera. They are still available to buy new, $53